Studies in South Africa and in Guatemala show that training was provided for the men, while the women were the main users of the system. Science 317: 951-953. doi:10.1126/science.1144334. PubMed: 17702943. 47. Shema R, Hazvi S, Sacktor TC, Dudai Y (2009) Boundary conditions for the maintenance of memory by PKMzeta in neocortex. Learn Mem 16: 122-128. doi:10.1101/lm.1183309. PubMed: 19181618. 48. Schrott LM, Franklin L, Serrano PA (2008) Prenatal opiate exposure impairs radial arm maze performance and reduces levels of BDNF precursor following training. The expression of these markers in both the cytosolic and synaptic fractions are shown as percent of untrained male and female controls. However, in spite of equivalent performance during acquisition, we found sex differences in the 1d test where females make significantly less reference errors compared to males and the reverse for the remote (30d) long-term memory. Especially when instructions are difficult to carry out (or impossible, such as in the absence of suitable replacement components), users may damage the system by taking measures as they deem appropriate.
The specimens may not drip flaming particles that ignite the dry absorbent surgical cotton located 300 mm below the test specimen. Evidence shows that user training can be (unintentionally) gender biased. Analysis of PKMζ expression showed overall sex effects, with females showing increased cytosolic PKMζ compared to males.
Together these data suggest that with robust training males do no retain spatial information as well as females do 24h post-training but maintain this spatial information for longer. Furthermore, the increased expression of synaptic PKMζ, associated with male memory but not with female memory, identifies another potential sex-mediated difference in memory processing. Animal quarters were maintained at constant temperature (22±1°C) and relative humidity (40-50%) with a 12h light/dark cycle (lights on at 8AM). Food (Harlan Teklad; Frederick, MD) and water were available ad libitum prior to behavioral training. Equality Now. 21 April 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2016. During retention testing, subjects were given 3 additional trials on the maze, using the same parameters as the training trials.